Prevention and response strategies
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Davis, J. Eskow, et al. BioScience, 55 4 , Hellmann, J. Byers, B. Bierwagen, and J.
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Conservation Biology, 22 3. Miller, J.
Manning, and S. Asheville, NC: U. Forest Service Southern Research Station. Retrieved from: www. Weir, D. Ziska, L.
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In addition to these direct production and trade costs, the associated control costs, including the costs of inspections, monitoring, prevention, and response, of even just a few species can be enormous. The full economic costs of invasions include not only the direct damage and control costs but also the effects on the ecosystems themselves. The ecological and environmental impacts of alien invasive species can be felt by all levels of organization including the gene, species, habitat and ecosystem level.
Invasive species impacts on US forests
If introduced or spread into habitats with closely related species, alien invasive species could interbreed with native species resulting in changes to the genetic makeup of either species Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, a. The possible negative consequences of such alterations include reduction in the survival of either species, creation of a more successful invader, or the creation of hybrids that could be more susceptible to certain pests and pathogens.
Of recent concern to the forest sector is the impact of possible introduction of new tree genotypes non-local provenances or genetically improved planting stock resulting in the creation of hybrids and the resulting loss of gene pools that may have acquired specific characteristics through local adaptation FAO, The issue has not been extensively studied in forest trees, except possibly in the European black poplar Populus nigra Cock, Alien invasive species can influence species diversity, richness, composition and abundance.
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At the species level, direct effects of alien invasive species occur through processes such as the predation of, competition with, and pathogen and parasite transmission to individual organisms, eventually leading to population declines and species extinctions Loehle, ; Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, a.
Through direct impacts on species or through alterations of habitats, alien invasive species are responsible for placing forest species at risk IUCN, The loss of such species is leading to a more homogenous world which is perhaps the biggest threat to global biological diversity, behind habitat loss Perrings, Williamson and Dalmazzone, ; McNeely et al. Through their impacts on species and ecosystem processes, alien invasive species can result in the fragmentation, destruction, alteration or complete replacement of habitats which in turn, has cascading effects on even more species and ecosystem processes McNeely et al.